Unit 2: Cultural Diversity – Tính đa dạng văn hóa
Reading – Unit 2 trang 20 Tiếng Anh 12
Before you read
Work in pairs. Discuss the question: Which of the following factors is the most important for a happy life? Why?
□ love □ money □ parents’approval
□ a nice house / flat □ a good job □ good health
A. Which of the above factors is the most important for a happy life?
B. In my opinion, love, good health and a good job are the most important For a happy life.
B. As we know, love, espcciallv the true love, is an essential factor for a marriage life. Someone compares love with light or water to life. Indeed, with love we can suffer the hardship, sufferings or misfortunes of life. And there’s an important aspect of love: forgiveness. We can say love and forgiveness arc two unseparable qualities.
A. What about good health? Is it also indispcndable too?
B. Sure. Imagine! Can you work or live a happy life if you are in ill health?
A. Absolutely no.
B. And a good job can provide you with money cnoush for your life and your family, because money is a means (if comfort.
A. OK. I quite agree with you.
❖ While You Read
Read the text and do the tasks that follow. (Đọc bài đọc và làm những bài tập kèm theo)
Theo truyền thống người Mĩ và người Á châu có những ý tưởng rấi khác nhau về tình yêu và hôn nhân. Người Mĩ tin ở hôn nhân” lãng mạn” – một cậu trai và một cô gái cảm thấy thích nhau, yêu nhau và quyết định cưới nhau. Trái lại, ngườỉ Á châu tin ở hôn nhân “có tính giao ước” – cha mẹ của cô dâu và của chú rể quyết định việc hôn nhân ; và tình yêu – nếu có phát triển – được nghĩ là sự tiếp nối hôn nhân, chớ không có trước nó.
Để chứng tỏ những sự khác biệt một cuộc khảo sát được tiến hành giữa các sinh viên Mĩ, Trung Quốc và Ấn để quyết định thái dộ của họ đối với tình yêu và hôn nhân. Sau đấy là bản tóm tắt các câu hỏi của mỗi nhóm cho bốn ý tưởng quan trọng.
Nét hấp dãn thể chất: Sinh viên Mĩ quan tâm nhiều về nét hấp dẫn thể chất hơn sinh viên Ân và Trung Quốc khi họ chọn vợ hay chồng. Họ cũng đồng ý rằng người vợ nên giữ vẻ đẹp và ngoại hình của mình sau hôn nhân.
Chia sẻ: Ít sinh viên Á châu đồng ý quan điểm của sinh viên Mĩ vợ và chồng nên chia sẻ mọi ý nghĩ với nhau. Thực vậy, đa số sinh viên Ân và Trung Quốc thực sự nghĩ rằng không thảo luận một số vấn đề, chia sẻ một số ý tưởng nào đó là tốt và khôn ngoan hơn. Đặc biệt rất nhiều người Ấn đồng ý rằng giãi bày tâm sự với vợ là không khôn ngoan.
Mối tương quan của người ngang hàng: Đa số sinh viên Á châu bác bỏ quan điểm của người Mĩ hôn nhân là mối tương quan giữa những người ngang hàng với nhau, không đòi hỏi ít hay nhiều hơn ở nhau. Đa số sinh viên Ân đồng ý rằng trong hôn nhân đàn bà phải hi sinh nhiều hơn đàn ông.
Tín nhiệm xây dựng trên tình yêu: Đáng chú ý, nhiều sinh viên châu Á hơn sinh viên Mĩ đồng ý rằng người chồng bắt buộc nói cho vợ nơi anh ta đã đi nếu anh về nhà muộn. Người vợ Á châu có thể yêu cầu báo cáo những hoạt động của chồng. Người vợ Mĩ, chẳng hạn, tin chồng mình làm điều đúng vì anh yêu cô chứ không vì anh bắt buộc phải làm.
Sự so sánh bốn ý tưởng về tính lãng mạn cho thấy người trẻ châu Á không lãng mạn bằng người Mĩ đồng trang lứa.
Task 1: Explain the meaning of the italicized words / phrases in the following sentences. (Giải thich nghĩa của những từ/cụm từ in nghiêng ởnhững câu sau.)
1. precede : happen or exist before
2. determine : find out
3. confide: tell someone about somethine very private or secret.
4. sacrifice: willingly Stop having something you want.
5. obliged: having a duty to do something.
Task 2: Answer the following questions. (Trả lời các câu hỏi sau.)
1. They arc “trust built on love, physical attractiveness, confiding and partnership of equals.”
2. The Americans are much more concerned with it than the Indians and the Chinese when choosing a wife or a husband.
3. The Indian students agree lhal a woman has lo sacrifice more in a marriage than a man.
4. The American wife trusts her husband to do the right thing because he loves her not because he has to.
5. The main finding of the survey is young Asians are not as romantic as their American counterparts.
❖ After You Read
Work ill groups. Discuss the question: “What are ihe differences between a traditional, Vietnamese family and a modem Vietnamese family?” (Là việc từng nhóm. Thảo luận câu hỏi:” Sự khác biệt giữa gia đình Việt Nam truyền thống và gia đình Việt Nam hiện đại?”)
A. I see the traditional Vietnamese family as well as family life is changing a lot. A modern Vietnamese family is quite different from the traditional one.
B. Thai’s right. First, in my opinion, it’s the size. A traditional family was usually an extended family, that is there are more than one generation living together under one roof.
C. But now a modern family is usually a nuclear family, consisting of only parents and their children.
D. OK. And the key fact we should mention is the number of children. A traditional family was usually a large one, with more than three. In some families, people could find the number of children up to ten or even more. On the contrary, a modem family, especially families in big cities, has only one or two children at most.
A. Next, in a traditional family, the father takes all responsibilities for the family. In other words, father works and earns money to support the whole family. The woman’s tasks are confined within the family: bearing children and doing all the housework.
B. Now in a modem family, both husband and wife have to work to support the family.
C. And what’s more husband and wife should share household work together.
D. That’s the interesting idea about the modern family: everyone in a family has his / her own responsibility to do, that is he / she should take part in the maintenance or the building of the family’s happiness.
A. OK. The husband and the wife must have the partnership of equals in the family: no one is superior to the other. Both have their corresponding responsibilities for his /her own.
Speaking – Unit 2 trang 22 Tiếng Anh 12
Task 1: Work in pairs. Express your point of view upon the following ideas, using the words or expressions in the box. (Làm việc từng đôi. Trình bày quan điểm của em về những ý tưởng sau, dùng những từ hay cụm từ trong khung.)
1. A. I think it’s a good idea to have three or four generations living together under one roof. They can help one another a lot.
B. I don’t agree. It’s been said there’s a “generation Hap” between the old and the young. Therefore, there may usually be conflicts among family members. In some countries, specially in developing countries, old-aeed people like to live in a nursing homes, where they can lead independent lives.
2. C. In my opinion, it’s obvious a happy marriage should he based on love, the true love, because love is the prerequisite for the family happiness. Only the true love can bring about forgiveness and sacrifice.
D. That’s true. It’s love that joins a man with a woman together.
3. E. I don’t think it’s a good idea that love can be supposed to follow the marriage. It’s an obsolete thought. Everyone should have a right to make decisions for his / her own, especially the one relating to his /her personal life. In the other hand, he / she determines and chooses his / her spouse freely. We love something whenever we know and understand it well. The more we know (something), the more we like (it).
F. That’s my thought, too. A happy marriage should he built on love.
4. G. I think it’s OK. Holding one’s hands is a way to express one’s feelings or love, especially the intimacy.
H. I agree with you. How about kissing each other in public?
G. Personally, it’s not our traditional culture. Our personal feelings may not be performed in public. I mean in front of other people, except for appropriate or necessary circumstances.
Task 2: Below arc some typical features of the American culture. Work in pairs. Discuss and find out the corresponding features of the Vietnamese culture. (Dưới đây là một vài điểm đặc trưng của Văn hóa Mĩ. Làm việc từng đôi, thảo luận và tìm những đặc điểm tương ứng của văn hóa Việt Nam.)
* Two generations (parents and children) live in a home.
* Old-aged parents live in nursing homes.
* Ii is not polite lo ask questions about age, marriage and income.
* Americans can greet anyone in the family first.
* Groceries are bought once a week.
* Christmas and New Year holidays are the most important.
* Americans celebrate birthdays and give presents at birthday parties.
* Children sleep in their own rooms.
* Two or more generations can live in a home.
* Old-aged parents often live with their children.
It’s a common mailer in Viet Nam, but now under the influence of Western culture, some people abide this rule, too.
* Usually the inferior must greet the superior first.
* Groceries can be bought at any time when necessary.
* Only New Year (Lunar New Year-Tet) holidays are the most importanit.
* Now this custom is also done in Vietnamese families, but usually in rich or young ones. Most Vietnamese people celebrate parents’ or grandparents’ death anniversay.
* Small children usually sleep with their parents, but older children sleep in their own room.
Task 3: Work in groups. Talk about the similarities and differences between Vietnamese and American cultures, using the features discussed in Task 1. (Làm việc từng nhóm. Thảo luận những điểm tương tự và khác biệt giữa văn hóa Việt Nam và văn hóa Mĩ, dùng những đặc điềm được thảo luận ờ Task 1.)
A. I think there are various differences between Vietnamese and American cultures.
B. For example ?
C. Well. In the United States, usually only two generations (parents and children) live under one roof. Meanwhile in Viet Nam you can see three or more generations living in the same home.
D. A different feature between two cultures is old-aged Americans often live in nursing homes, but Vietnamese old people usually live with their children or grandchildren.
A. In America, asking about age, salary and religion is considered impolite, but it’s OK or acceptable in Viet Nam. This custom, however, is also kept by some Vietnamese people, especially among young citydwellers.
B. About greetings, in the US anyone can greet the others in the family first, but in Viet Nam young or inferior people must greet the old or superior first.
C. Christmas and New Year are the most important holidays in America, but in Viet Nam only Lunar New Year is the most important.
D. Americans usually buy groceries or go shopping at weekends, but Vietnamese people can buy groceries or things at any time they need or want. I think it depends on lifestyle and family activities.
A. About the ways of expressing love or sentiments, Americans can kiss or embrace each other in public, but this is considered unpleasant to eyes in Viet Nam.
B. Birthdays or wedding anniversaries are usually celebrated in American families; they are considered important family celebrations . In Viet Nam we also see this custom, but only in young or rich families.
C. One more difference in two cultures: American children sleep in their own rooms, meanwhile Vietnamese parents let their children sleep with them, especially small children.
Listening- Unit 2 Trang 24 Tiếng Anh 12
❖ Before You Listen
Work with a partner. Discuss the following questions. (Làm việc với một bạn cùng học. Thảo luận những câu hỏi sau.)
1. Yes. I often have.
2. The bride and Ihe groom usually stand in front of their ancestors’ altar praying and asking them to bless their love and they wear rings and other jewelry to each other. Afterwards, the bride’s and the groom’s parents and relatives give them presents or jewels. Then the bride and the groom come over to present themselves to their grandparents, families’members and relatives. At the end, they have a party either at home or at a restaurant.
❖ While You Listen
Task 1: Listen to the passage and fill in the missing information. (Nghe đoạn văn và điền những thông tin thiếu.)
- the groom’s parents. 2. red paper 3. family or ancestors’ altar
- at the wedding banquet. 5. money gifts
WEDDING in VIET NAM
Tourist : T Tourist Guide: TG
T : Can you tell me something about the wedding ceremony in Vietnam?
T.G : Well, wedding is very important to the Vietnamese, not only to the couple involved but also for both families. The wedding day is usually chosen by the groom’s parents.
T : What does the groom’s family do on the wedding day?
T.G.: On the wedding day, the groom’s family and relatives go to the bride’s house bringing gifts wrapped in red papers. Those who hold the trays of gifts are also carefully chosen.
T.: Do you have the Master of Ceremonies? And what does he do during ihe wedding ceremony?
T.G.: The Master of Ceremonies introduces thc groom, the bride, the parents, the relatives and guests of the two families. The wedding ceremony starts in front of the altar. The bride and the groom would pray, asking their ancestors’ permission to be married. The Master of Ceremonies would give the wedding couple advice on starting a new family. The groom and the bride then exchange their wedding rings.
T.: Where is the wedding banquet held?
T.G.: Well, it depends. Often the wedding banquet is scheduled at the groom or bride’s home or at a restaurant and all close relatives, friends and neighbours are invited.
T. What kind of food and drinks are served? Traditional food and beer or wine are. During the reception, the groom and bride and their parents stop by each table to thank their guests. The guests, in return, will give envelopes containing wedding cards and money gifts to the newly wedded couples alone with their blessings.
T.: Oh. That’s very interesting. Thank you.
T.G.: You’re welcome.
Task 2: Listen again and answer the questions. (Nghe lại và trả lời các câu hỏi.)
1. The most important thing the groom’s family has to do on the wedding day is to go the bride’s house bringing gifts wrapped in red paper.
2. They would pray and ask their ancestors to bless their love in from of the family’s altar.
3. After they pray to their ancestors .
4. The wedding banquet is usually held either at the groom’s and bride’s home or at a restaurant.
5. They come up to each table to thank their guests.
❖ After You Listen
Work in groups. Discuss the questions, “What do families often do to prepare for a wedding ceremony?”(Làm việc từng nhóm. Thảo luận câu hỏi. “Các gia đình thường làm gì để chuẩn bị lễ cưới”)
A. The wedding ceremony is a very important occasion to every Vietnamese family.”
B. Sure it is. It’s one of the most important of the Vietnamese traditional ceremonies. Therefore it must he well prepared.
C. There’s no doubt about it. Then, what do related families do for it?
D. I think the ceremony must he prepared tor weeks before the scheduled day.
A. What should they do?
B. Well. As I know, both families must decorate their houses, especially the family altars. All things must be clean or new, and gorgeous!
C. Next they send letters of invitation to relatives, friends and neighbours, usually ten days before. To the people who live nearby, they must come to invite them in person.
A. Simultaneously, they have to make a reservation at a restaurant for the wedding reception, or do all things necessary for it.
C. And the most important thing the groom’s parents must do is they must prepare all things, for example jewels, money, presents, for the wedding day.
D. Besides, the groom’s parents should choose the people who will accompany the groom – bringing the trays of gifts – to go to the bride’s house.
Writing – Unit 2 trang 25 Tiếng Anh 12
Task 1: You are going to write about the conical leaf hat or the “ nón lá”, a symbol of Vietnamese culture. Look at the picture below. Find the Vietnamese equivalents for the English words. (Em định viết về “nón lú”, một biểu tượng của văn hóa Việt. Nhìn vào hình tượng đây Tìm từ tương đương tiếng Việt cho những từ tiếngAnh.)
1. leaf: lứ 2. rim : vành nón
3. ribs : khung nón 4. strap : quai nón
Task 2: Write a passage of about 150 words about the conical leaf hat of Vietnam, using the outline and information below. (Viết một đoạn văn khoảng 150 từ về “nón lá”, dùng dàn bài và thông tin dưới dây.)
A Symbol of the Vietnamese Culture: The Conical Leaf Hat
– symbol of Vietnamese girls/women
– part of the spirit of the Vietnamese nation
Shape and size
– special kind of bamboo and young/soft palm leaves
– conical form
– diameter: 45 – 50 cm; 25 – 30 cm high
– covering the form with leaves/sewing leaves around ribs
– protecting people from sun rain
– girls/women look pretty/attractive
When you come to the countryside of Vietnam, especially in Hue, you can see a lot of beautiful girls with a palm leaf conical hat on . The conical leaf hat is said the symbol of the Vietnamese culture.
The hai is made from a special kind of bamboo and young and soft palm leaves. The ribs are shaped into a conical form. The diametre of the hat is usually about between forty and fifty-five centimetres; and it is about twenty-five or thirty centimetres high. The ribs are covered with palm leaves which are tightly stiched onto the bamboo frame. Finally, the hat is usually painted with a coat of furniture – poiish oil.
The palm leaf conical hai is mainly used to protect from shine or rain. Beneath the broad rim of the hai do Vietnamese girls look more attractive and charming.
LANGUAGE FOCUS – Unit 2 trang 27 Tiếng Anh 12
Exercise 1. Complete the following conversations with the coưect form of the verbs in the box.
See drink write cook
1. A:_____________ you______________ The Titanic yet?
B: Yes, I have. I________________ it last night. Why?
A: I______________ it next Friday.
2. A: Who_______________ all the soda?
B: Not me. I________________ any soda at all since last week.
I_____________ water all week. It’s much healthier.
3. A: Susan_______________ a lot of books lately.
B:_____________ she______________ Wildest Dreams?
A: Yes, she did. She__________________ that one about five years aso.
4. A: You______________ for hours. When are we eating dinner?
B: I’ve just finished. I ____________________ something special for you.
It’s called “Ants on a tree’’.
B: Actually, I________________ it for you many times before. It’s just
meatballs with rice noodles.
1. Have – see ; saw : am eoing lo sec
2. drank ; have not drunk; drank
3. has written ; Did – write : wrote
4. have been cooking ; have cooked ; have cooked
Exercise 2. Circle the letter (A, B, c or D) to complete the passaae.
Rosemary Dare is a wildlife photographer. She (1) ___________________________ in
Uganda for many years. She (2)_________________ elephants for twenty years.
She (3)____________ thousands of pictures since the 1980s. Last year, she
(4) an international prize for nature photography. She (5)
__________ many prizes over the years. Recently, Ms Dare (6)
___________ interested in rhinos. She (7)___________________ them for the last
few months. I am sure we (8)_________________ some interesting photos soon.
1. A. lives B. will live
C. has been living D. doesn’t live
2. A. has been photographing B. photographs
C. is photographing D. was photographing
A. is taking
B. will take
C. has taken
B. is winning
c. has won
D. has been winning
B. is winning
c. has won
A. has become
c. will become
B. will track
c. has been tracking
A. will see
c. have been seeing
D. have seen
1. C 2. A 3. C 4. A 5.C 6. A 7. c 8. A
Exercise 3. Complete the following letter with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Dear Mr Jone
Iam writing this letter to complain about the noise from Apartment 3C.I ( 1.move)…………. into Apartment 2C on November 1. Since I (2.move)…………in, my upstairs neighbours have their stereo loudly every night. I (3.ask) …………them to turn it down several time. But they (4.not stop) …….. the noise yet. I (5.study)………. Every night. I (6.fail)………..stops. I would be grateful if you (7.can talk) …………to my neighbours and ask them to turn down their stereo after 10.00 p.m
1. moved 2. Moved 3. haved asked 4. have not stopped
5. study 6. will fail 7. could talk